Corruption in Chad is characterized by nepotism and cronyism.[1] Chad received a score of 20 out of 100 on Transparency International's Corruption Perceptions Index; of the 180 countries evaluated, Chad's rank was 164, placing it among the countries in the world perceived to be most corrupt.[2]

History of corruption in Chad[edit]

During the Tombalbaye government[edit]

François Tombalbaye was the first President of Chad, his regime has been described as marked by authoritarianism, extreme corruption, and favoritism.[3][4] Corruption in form of tax collection abuse was one of the main causes of the Mubi Uprising, a series of riots which started the Chadian Civil War.[5]

During the Déby era[edit]

Idriss Déby, an incumbent President of Chad has been accused of cronyism and tribalism.[6] Chadian opposition leaders and Human Rights Watch have accused Déby of electoral fraud in multiple elections where he and his party have won by a landslide.[7] During the Déby's presidency, in 2005, Chad was ranked the most corrupt country in the world (tied with Bangladesh).[8]

Corruption in the government institutions[edit]

In Judicial System[edit]

According to the Human Rights Report by the US Department of State Chad’s judicial system is heavily influenced by the government, causing the government officials to enjoy impunity. Judges who try to uphold independence face harassment and in some cases dismissal.[9] Businesses reported that they have often paid bribes to influence judicial decisions.[10] Ordinary civilians have low trust in their country's judicial system and they try avoid it.[11]

In Security Forces[edit]

According to the Human Rights Report by the US Department of State corruption is largely present in both military and the police of Chad. Security forces often engage in petty corruption, violence, and extortion, which usually goes unpunished. Multiple cases of Judiciary Police not enforcing court orders against military personnel and members of their own ethnic group have been reported.[9] There are also reports of policemen committing street crimes and unlawfully arresting people, usually foreign tourists.[12]

In 2013, an anti-corruption crackdown was conducted in the police force. The crackdown uncovered illegal promotion and recruitment practices, lack of adequate training, favoritism and other corrupt activities. Two ministers were dismissed after the crackdown.[12]

In Public Services[edit]

Corruption in public services of Chad is characterized by nepotism and bribery. Bribery is common in public services due low salaries of civil servants.[12] Public works conducted by the government have been criticized by international organizations for lacking transparency and involving high-levels of corruption.[13]

In Oil Sector[edit]

Chad became an oil producer in 2003. In order to avoid resource curse and corruption, elaborate plans sponsored by the World Bank were made. This plan ensured transparency in payments, as well as that 80% of money from oil exports would be spent on five priority development sectors, two most important of these being: education and healthcare. However money started getting diverted towards the military even before the civil war broke out. In 2006 when the civil war escalated, Chad abandoned previous economic plans sponsored by World Bank and added "national security" as priority development sector, money from this sector was used to improve the military. During the civil war, more than 600 million dollars were used to buy fighter jets, attack helicopters, and armored personnel carriers.[14] In 2005, an investigation uncovered money wastes, such as computers and printers being bought at inflated prices and various construction projects being paid for but never getting completed.[15] According to Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative, the lack of transparency in infrastructure projects funded by money from oil sector and the fact that there is no record keeping system to monitor flow of money from the oil sector represents significant risk of corruption.[16]

Anti-corruption efforts[edit]

Chad has a ministry for combating corruption, called Ministry of Morality and Good Governance. In 2009, the ministry made a strategic plan to combat corruption, same year an investigation against 10 government officials including then-mayor of N'Djamena and several cabinet ministers. The charges against them were dropped in 2010 because of the lack of evidence.[12]

In 2012, Chadian government launched Operation Cobra which aimed to increase transparency and dismiss corrupt officials. It resulted in 400 officials being dismissed and according to Ministry of Morality and Good Governance, XAF 25 billion (about €38 million) to be recovered.[17]

BTI and the US department of state have described government's anti-corruption efforts as politically motivated and used as a way to eliminate political opposition.[12]

Protests[edit]

Since 2014, protests against corruption and authoritarianism of current president Déby have been held in N'Djamena. Protests so far have had no success.[18]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Chad Corruption Report". GAN Integrity. Retrieved 2021-01-26.
  2. ^ "Corruptions Perceptions Index 2021 for Chad". Transparency.org. Retrieved 2022-03-06.
  3. ^ Marielle, Debos (2016) [1st pub. 2013]. Living by the Gun in Chad. Combatants, Impunity and State Formation (Revised, Updated, and Translated ed.). London: Zed Books. ISBN 978-1-78360-532-3.
  4. ^ Cooper, Tom; Grandolini, Albert (2015). Libyan Air Wars: Part 1: 1973–1985. Havertown: Helion and Company. ISBN 978-1-910777-51-0.
  5. ^ Azevedo, Mario (1998). The Roots of Violence: A History of War in Chad. Charlotte: Gordon and Breach Publishers. p. 65. ISBN 0-203-98874-4.
  6. ^ "'Isolated' Deby clings to power". 2006-04-13. Retrieved 2021-01-26.
  7. ^ World Report Book 2008. Human Rights Watch. <https://www.hrw.org/wr2k8/pdfs/wr2k8_web.pdf>
  8. ^ "Worst corruption offenders named". 2005-10-18. Retrieved 2021-01-26.
  9. ^ a b "Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2015". 2009-2017.state.gov. Retrieved 2021-01-26.
  10. ^ "Global Competitiveness Report 2015-2016". Global Competitiveness Report 2015-2016. Retrieved 2021-01-26.
  11. ^ "BTI 2020: Chad". BTI Blog. Retrieved 2021-01-26.
  12. ^ a b c d e Hub, Knowledge (2021-01-26). "Transparency International Knowledge Hub". Knowledge Hub. Retrieved 2021-01-26.
  13. ^ "International Crisis Group Annual Report 2009 - World". ReliefWeb. Retrieved 2021-01-26.
  14. ^ Hicks, Celeste (2015). "Chad and the West: Shifting Security Burden?". Africa Policy Brief: 1–2 – via JSTOR.
  15. ^ Polgreen, Lydia (2008-09-11). "Oil's curse holds true for World Bank pipeline in Chad (Published 2008)". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2021-01-26.
  16. ^ "EITI Progress Report 2014". Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative. 2016-07-08. Retrieved 2021-01-26.
  17. ^ https://www.bti-project.org/content/en/downloads/reports/country_report_2014_TCD.pdf[bare URL PDF]
  18. ^ "As Chad's Problems Mount, What Role for Civil Society?". Crisis Group. 2020-05-25. Retrieved 2021-01-27.